Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

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  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release : 03 July 2013
  • ISBN : 9780444534996
  • Page : 432 pages
  • Rating : 4.5/5 from 103 voters

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Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology, a new volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology, provides a comprehensive and contemporary reference on parasitic infections of the human nervous system. Parasitic infections are varied and some are resolved by the host’s immune system, other infections may become established even though unnoticed, and some cause severe disease and death. In our modern world, neuroparasitoses are no longer geographically isolated and these infections now appear worldwide. Outside of a very few well understood pathologies, most parasitic infections have been neglected in the neurological literature and most neurologists have never diagnosed such an infection. This volume details how, with the advent of modern neuroimaging techniques, improved diagnostic applications of molecular biology, more accurate immunodiagnosis, and minimally invasive neurosurgery, human nervous system parasitoses are now diagnosed and treated, with increasing frequency. The book is divided into six sections, and begins with an introduction to the mechanisms of infection, diagnosis, and pathology of parasitic diseases. Subsequent chapters detail protozoan diseases and a section covering each of the major classes of human-infecting helminths: nematodes (roundworms), trematodes (flukes), and cestodes (tapeworms). The final section contains chapters on other important areas of tropical clinical medicine including the neurological complications of venomous bites and tropical nutritional deficiencies. Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology will be of interest to neurologists, neurosurgeons and other health professionals encountering patients with parasitic infections. A comprehensive reference resource on the diagnosis and treatment of parasitic infections of the human nervous system Focuses on the impact of modern neuroimaging techniques, improved diagnostic applications of molecular biology, more accurate immunodiagnosis, and minimally invasive neurosurgery to diagnose parasitoses International list of contributors including the leading workers in the field

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Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Hector H. Garcia,Herbert B. Tanowitz,Oscar H. Del Brutto
  • Publisher : Newnes
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780444534996
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology, a new volume in The Handbook of Clinical Neurology, provides a comprehensive and contemporary reference on parasitic infections of the human nervous system. Parasitic infections are varied and some are resolved by the host’s immune system, other infections may become established even though unnoticed, and some cause severe disease and death. In our modern world, neuroparasitoses are no longer geographically isolated and these infections now appear worldwide. Outside of a very few well understood pathologies,

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Jean Jannin,Albis Francesco Gabrielli
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079454
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neglected tropical diseases are a group of mostly infectious diseases that thrive among poor populations in tropical countries. A significant proportion of the conditions affecting the neurological system in such countries can be attributed to neglected tropical diseases of helminth, protozoan, bacterial, or viral origin. The neurological burden of neglected tropical diseases has not been thoroughly investigated yet, but is expected to be significant; its full appreciation, estimation, and recognition present significant challenges, as shown by the case of the “

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Devender Bhalla,Michel Dumas,Pierre-Marie Preux
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079621
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Filarial infections cause a huge public health burden wherever they are endemic. These filaria may locate anywhere in the human body. Their manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms, except the most common ones, are rarely investigated systematically. Their neurological manifestations, however, are being increasingly recognized particularly with onchocerciasis or Loa loa infections, Wuchereria bancrofti, or Mansonella perstans. The risk of developing these manifestations may also increase in cases that harbor multiple filariasis or coinfections, for instance as with Plasmodium. The microfilaria of

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Gustavo C. Román
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079744
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas,Braulio M. Valencia,Christine A. Petersen
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079577
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Leishmaniasis is a spectral disease, caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the species Leishmania. There are multiple reported instances where neurological manifestations, whether central or peripheral, are described. In this review we describe neurological manifestations seen during infection with Leishmania spp. Taken together, the material discussed here suggests that in patients from Leishmania-endemic areas, when observing neurological symptoms, causation secondary to infection with Leishmania spp. may be considered.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Sahar Usmani-Brown,John J. Halperin,Peter J. Krause
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079584
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Babesiosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa that are transmitted by Ixodid ticks, or less commonly through blood transfusion or transplacentally. Although headache and lethargy are common symptoms, babesiosis is uncommonly associated with specific neurological dysfunction in humans. Decreased level of consciousness or coma are rare complications that are associated with severe and often fatal disease but the pathogenesis is unclear.

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Oscar H. Del Brutto
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079720
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Snake and spider bites, as well as scorpion sting envenoming, are neglected diseases affecting millions of people all over the world. Neurological complications vary according to the offending animal, and are often directly related to toxic effects of the venom, affecting the central nervous system, the neuromuscular transmission, the cardiovascular system, or the coagulation cascade. Snake bite envenoming may result in stroke or muscle paralysis. Metalloproteinases and other substances (common in vipers and colubrids) have anticoagulant or procoagulant activity, and

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Jane Kvalsvig,Marco Albonico
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079737
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Published reviews vary on the question of whether geohelminth infections affect cognitive development: some claim that the scarcity of evidence means that it is unlikely that they do; others present modest evidence for an effect; and others raise the possibility that the damage is considerable but largely unresearched. This chapter reviews the characteristics of the geohelminths themselves and the pathways by which they could affect the development of children in endemic areas. It describes the progress made in the last

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Fernando Woll,Eduardo Gotuzzo,Martin Montes
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079614
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Strongyloides stercoralis is a nematode endemic in humid tropical regions. The life cycle of this parasite is complex and unique due to its capacity to cause autoinfection, resulting in chronic infections. Innate and adaptive immune responses are responsible for clearing the parasite. Many risk factors have been described, but the most important is living in or having visited an endemic area. The clinical presentation of strongyloidiasis is varied and ranges from asymptomatic chronic infection to hyperinfection syndrome. Hyperinfection syndrome is

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Veerle Lejon,Marina Bentivoglio,José Ramon Franco
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079553
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is a neglected tropical disease that affects populations in sub-Saharan Africa. The disease is caused by infection with the gambiense and rhodesiense subspecies of the extracellular parasite Trypanosoma brucei, and is transmitted to humans by bites of infected tsetse flies. The disease evolves in two stages, the hemolymphatic and meningoencephalitic stages, the latter being defined by central nervous system infection after trypanosomal traversal of the blood–brain barrier. African trypanosomiasis, which leads to severe

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Krister Kristensson,Willias Masocha,Marina Bentivoglio
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079461
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) is a most devastating complication of a parasitic infection. Several physical and immunological barriers provide obstacles to such an invasion. In this broad overview focus is given to the physical barriers to neuroinvasion of parasites provided at the portal of entry of the parasites, i.e., the skin and epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, and between the blood and the brain parenchyma, i.e., the blood−brain barrier (BBB). A description is

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079515
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

American trypanosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagas disease is endemic in Latin America, where an estimated 10–14 million people are infected, and an emerging disease in Europe and the USA. Trypanosoma cruzi is transmitted by blood-sucking bugs of the family Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus, Panstrongylus megistus, Triatoma infestans, and T. dimidiata are the main vectors in the sylvatic cycle. Non vector-borne transmission includes blood transfusion, congenital and oral transmission, transplantation, and accidental infections. Most cases

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Govinda S. Visvesvara
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079546
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, and Naegleria fowleri are mitochondria-bearing, free-living eukaryotic amebae that have been known to cause infections of the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. Several species of Acanthamoeba belonging to several different genotypes cause an insidious and chronic disease, granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE), principally in immunocompromised hosts including persons infected with HIV/AIDS. Acanthamoeba spp., belonging to mostly group 2, also cause infection of the human cornea, Acanthamoeba keratitis. Balamuthia mandrillaris causes GAE in both

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Kevin R. Kazacos,Linda A. Jelicks,Herbert B. Tanowitz
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079645
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Baylisascaris procyonis is a roundworm of the raccoon found primarily in North America but also known to occur in other parts of the world including South America, Europe, and Japan. Migration of the larvae of this parasite is recognized as a cause of clinical neural larva migrans (NLM) in humans, primarily children. It is manifested as meningoencephalitis associated with marked eosinophilia of the cerebrospinal fluid and peripheral blood. Diagnosis is made by recovering and identifying larvae in or from the

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Neuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology
  • Author : Christina Marie Coyle
  • Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
  • Release Date : 2013-07-03
  • ISBN : 9780128079669
GET THIS BOOKNeuroparasitology and Tropical Neurology

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Currently 200 million people worldwide are infected. Neurological manifestations are a result of the inflammatory response of the host to egg deposition in the brain and spinal cord and is usually seen in patients with recent infection with no evidence of systemic illness. Cerebral and cerebellar disease can result in headache, seizure, and increased intracranial pressure. Cerebral schistosomiasis is more common in Schistosoma japonicum, but increasing cases due