Homeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity

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  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release : 06 January 2016
  • ISBN : 9782889197040
  • Page : 154 pages
  • Rating : 4.5/5 from 103 voters

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Activity within neural circuits shapes the synaptic properties of component neurons in a manner that maintains stable excitatory drive, a process referred to as homeostatic plasticity. These potent and adaptive mechanisms have been demonstrated to modulate activity at the level of an individual neuron, synapse, circuit, or entire network, and dysregulation at some or all of these levels may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Greater mechanistic understanding of homeostatic plasticity will provide key insights into the etiology of these disorders, which may result from network instability and synaptic dysfunction. Over the past 15 years, the molecular mechanisms of this form of plasticity have been intensely studied in various model organisms, including invertebrates and vertebrates. Though once thought to have a predominantly postsynaptic basis, emerging evidence suggests that homeostatic mechanisms act on both sides of the synapse through mechanisms such as retrograde signaling, to orchestrate compensatory adaptations that maintain stable network function. These trans-synaptic signaling systems ultimately alter neurotransmitter release probability by a variety of mechanisms including changes in vesicle pool size and calcium influx. These adaptations are not expected to occur homogenously at all terminals of a pre-synaptic neuron, as they might synapse with neurons in non-overlapping circuits. However, the factors that govern the homeostatic control of synapse-specific plasticity are only beginning to be understood. In addition to our limited molecular understanding of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity, very little is known about its prevalence in vivo or its physiological and disease relevance. In this research topic, we aim to fill the aforementioned void by covering a broad range of topics that include: - Identification of signaling pathways and mechanisms that operate globally or locally to induce specific pre-synaptic adaptations - The nature of pre-synaptic ion channels relevant to this form of plasticity and their synapse-specific modulation and trafficking - Development and utilization of new tools or methods to study homeostatic plasticity in axons and pre-synaptic terminals - Novel mechanisms of homeostatic adaptations in pre-synaptic neurons - Postsynaptic sensors of activity and retrograde synaptic signaling systems - A comprehensive analysis of the kinds of pre-synaptic adaptations in diverse neural circuits and cell types - Identification of physiological or developmental conditions that promote pre-synaptic homeostatic adaptations - How activity-dependent (Hebbian) and homeostatic synaptic changes are integrated to both permit sufficient flexibility and maintain stable activity - Relevance of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity to the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders - Computational modeling of pre-synaptic homeostatic plasticity and network stability.

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Homeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity

Homeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity
  • Author : Michael A. Sutton,Dion Dickman
  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2016-01-06
  • ISBN : 9782889197040
GET THIS BOOKHomeostatic and Retrograde Signaling Mechanisms Modulating Presynaptic Function and Plasticity

Activity within neural circuits shapes the synaptic properties of component neurons in a manner that maintains stable excitatory drive, a process referred to as homeostatic plasticity. These potent and adaptive mechanisms have been demonstrated to modulate activity at the level of an individual neuron, synapse, circuit, or entire network, and dysregulation at some or all of these levels may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Greater mechanistic understanding of homeostatic plasticity will provide key insights into the etiology

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  • Publisher : Academic Press
  • Release Date : 2017-04-18
  • ISBN : 0128034718
GET THIS BOOKNetwork Functions and Plasticity

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  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
  • Release Date : 2017-01-05
  • ISBN : 9782889450657
GET THIS BOOKAnatomy and Plasticity in Large-Scale Brain Models

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  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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This eBook is a collection of articles from a Frontiers Research Topic. Frontiers Research Topics are very popular trademarks of the Frontiers Journals Series: they are collections of at least ten articles, all centered on a particular subject. With their unique mix of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Frontiers Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own

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  • Release Date : 2016-01-27
  • ISBN : 9782889197644
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2016
  • ISBN : 9780199322299
GET THIS BOOKHomeostatic Control of Brain Function

Homeostatic Control of Brain Function offers a broad view of brain health and diverse perspectives for potential treatments, targeting key areas such as mitochondria, the immune system, epigenetic changes, and regulatory molecules such as ions, neuropeptides, and neuromodulators. Loss of homeostasis becomes expressed as a diverse array of neurological disorders. Each disorder has multiple comorbidities - with some crossing over several conditions - and often disease-specific treatments remain elusive. When current pharmacological therapies result in ineffective and inadequate outcomes, therapies

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  • Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
  • Release Date : 2010-11-02
  • ISBN : 9781441969781
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  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Release Date : 2014-11-04
  • ISBN : 9780199321889
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  • Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
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  • ISBN : 9782889451876
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  • ISBN : 9780444641519
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